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Explore the Rich Diversity of Traditional Paddy Varieties

Traditional varieties of paddy have stood the test of time and extreme weather variabilities for decades. Local adaptation and resilience have proved to be beneficial for farmers in the state. About 60-65 percent of the traditional varieties of paddy have disappeared from Western Odisha during the last decade. A majority of these varieties disappeared during the severe drought year of 1996. Broadcasted paddy is more than the transplanted paddy. Broadcasting is a usual practice mostly in the uplands. 

Preferred Varieties of Traditional Paddy

Paddy Rice
Paddy Rice

Saria

Saria is a traditional variety of paddy commonly cultivated by small and marginal farmers in Western Odisha. It is a short duration variety of 60-70 days. It is cultivated usually on the uplands. Seeds are usually broadcasted after the onset of the south-west monsoons. Intercultural operations like weeding are practiced. Farm yard manure is also applied to the plots before sowing. On average, 3-4 cartloads of well-decomposed dried Farm Yard Manure (FYM) are used per acre.

The average labour requirements for cultivating the crop ranges between 6-8 person days mainly for broadcasting, land levelling, weeding, and harvesting. Fertilizers like urea, DAP and Gromor are also used by some farmers presently to enhance the yield. Higher yields have been reported by some of the farmers from 5-8 bags/acre to 12-15 bags/acre. It is a drought-resistant variety and can come up with 3-4 good rains during the Kharif season.

The average input cost per acre is Rs. 1000. The average income per acre is Rs. 3000. This variety is used locally for consumption purposes and is liked for its taste. Puffed and flattened rice can also be prepared from this variety. The straw is long type (4-5 feet) and is used locally for thatching and as fodder for livestock.

Kabiri Chinna

KabiriChinna is a traditional variety of paddy commonly cultivated by farmers in Western Odisha. It is a long-duration variety of 150 days. It is cultivated on lowlands. Seeds are usually broadcasted after the onset of the south-west monsoons. Intercultural operations like weeding are practiced. Farmyard manure is also applied to the plots before sowing. On average, 4 cartloads of well-decomposed dried FYM are used per acre.

The average labour requirements for cultivating the crop ranges between 6-8 person days mainly for broadcasting, land levelling, weeding and harvesting. Fertilizers like urea, DAP and Gromor are used in little amounts by some farmers presently to enhance the yield. The average yields ranges between 10-15 bags/acre. It is a drought-resistant variety and can come up with 2-3 good rains during the Kharif season.

The average input cost per acre is Rs. 1600. The average income per acre is Rs. 4500. This variety is used locally for consumption purposes and is liked for its taste. It is a preferred variety grown for good yield, low fertilizer requirements, and drought-resistant characteristics. Puffed and flattened rice can also be prepared from this variety. The straw is medium type (3.5 feet) and is used locally for thatching and as fodder for livestock.

Galei Kanthi

Galei Kanthi is a traditional variety of paddy cultivated by farmers in Western Odisha. It is a medium-duration variety of 110 days. It is cultivated on lowlands. Seeds are usually broadcasted and sometimes transplanted after the onset of the southwest monsoons. Intercultural operations like weeding are practiced. Farmyard manure is also applied to the plots before sowing. On average, 4 cartloads of well-decomposed dried FYM are used per acre.

The average labour requirements for cultivating the crop range between 5 person days mainly for broadcasting/transplanting, land levelling, ploughing, buesaning, weeding and harvesting. Fertilizers like Urea, DAP, and Gromor are used in little amounts by some farmers presently to enhance the yield. The average yield ranges between 12-15 bags/acre. It is a drought-resistant variety and can come up with 2-3 good rains during the Kharif season.

The average input cost per acre is Rs. 1500. The average income per acre is Rs. 4800. This variety is used locally for consumption purposes and is liked for its taste. It is a preferred variety grown for good yield, low fertilizer requirements, and drought-resistant characteristics. Puffed and flattened rice can also be prepared from this variety. The straw is long type (4-4.5 feet) and is used locally for thatching and as fodder for livestock.

Mahipal

Mahipal is a traditional variety of paddy commonly cultivated by farmers in Western Odisha. It is a medium-duration variety of 120 days. It is cultivated usually in lowlands. Seeds are usually broadcasted after the onset of the southwest monsoons. Intercultural operations like weeding are practiced.

Farmyard manure is also applied to the plots before sowing. On average, 4 cartloads of well-decomposed dried FYM are used per acre. The average labour requirements for cultivating the crop ranges between 6-8 person days mainly for broadcasting, land levelling, weeding, and harvesting. Fertilizers like Urea, DAP, and Gromor are used in little amounts by some farmers presently to enhance the yield. The average yield ranges between 18-25 bags/acre. It is a drought-resistant variety and can come up with 2-3 good rains during the Kharif season.

The average input cost per acre is Rs. 2000. The average income per acre is Rs. 6200. This variety is used locally for consumption purposes and is liked for its taste. It is a preferred variety grown for good yield, low fertilizer requirements, and drought-resistant characteristics. Puffed and flattened rice can also be prepared from this variety. The straw is long type (5 feet) and is used locally for thatching and as fodder for livestock.

Kuliya

Kuliya is a traditional variety of paddy commonly cultivated by farmers in Western Odisha. It is a medium-duration variety of 120 days. It is cultivated usually in medium and lowlands. Seeds are usually broadcasted after the onset of the southwest monsoons. Intercultural operations like weeding are practiced. Farmyard manure is also applied to the plots before sowing. On average, 6 cartloads of well-decomposed dried FYM is used per acre.

The average labour requirements for cultivating the crop ranges between 6-8 person days mainly for broadcasting, land levelling, weeding, and harvesting. Fertilizers like Urea, DAP, and Gromor are used in little amounts by some farmers presently to enhance the yield. The average yields ranges between 15-18 bags/acre. It is a drought-resistant variety and can come up with 2-3 good rains during the Kharif season.

The average input cost per acre is Rs. 1200. The average income per acre is Rs. 5400. This variety is used locally for consumption purposes and is liked for its taste. It is a preferred variety grown for good yield, low fertilizer requirements, and drought-resistant characteristics. Puffed and flattened rice can also be prepared from this variety. The straw is long type (4.5 feet) and is used locally for thatching and as fodder for livestock.

Kalasu

Kalasu is a traditional variety of paddy commonly cultivated by farmers in Western Odisha. It is a short duration variety of 75 days. It is cultivated usually in medium and lowlands. Seeds are usually broadcasted after the onset of the southwest monsoons. Intercultural operations like weeding are practiced. Farmyard manure is also applied to the plots before sowing. On average, 4 cartloads of well-decomposed dried FYM are used per acre.

The average labor requirements for cultivating the crop range between 6-8 person days mainly for broadcasting, land leveling, weeding, and harvesting. Fertilizers like Urea, DAP, and Gromor are used in little amounts by some farmers presently to enhance the yield. The average yield ranges between 8-10 bags/acre. It is a drought-resistant variety and can come up with 2-3 good rains during the Kharif season. The average input cost per acre is Rs. 1000.

The average income per acre is Rs. 5400. This variety is used locally for consumption purposes and is liked for its taste. It is a preferred variety grown for good yield, low fertilizer requirements, early crop, and drought-resistant characteristics. Puffed and flattened rice can also be prepared from this variety. The straw is long (4 feet) and is used locally for thatching and as fodder for livestock.

Traditional Paddy Varieties of Western Odisha

Sl.NoLocal name of PaddyVariety (Long / Medium / Short duration)Duration (in Days)Availability (Yes/No)
1MaljhuliShort80Yes
2SapleheraShort80No
3MeghabahulShort90No
4DumerLong120No
5SetkaShort60No
6SekraShort70No
7BhogiShort70No
8GanjhoShort80No
9NenkaMedium90No
10KusumaMedium90Yes
11BoreiMedium90No
12LodeiMedium90No
13ParaShort60No
14BiromoniMedium90Yes
15MaharajiShort90No
16Ram MukutMedium90No
17DondoShort60No
18NagobelShort60No
19PagoboriMedium90No
20Mohul LuthaMedium90No
21Ambo JhompaMedium90No
22SirchamotiMedium100No
23HiranMedium100Yes
24SurotaMedium100No
25DusmatiaMedium100No
26KonjhibakoLong120No
27BankoLong120No
28BiriphuliLong120No
29KotokotoraLong120No
30SokkiLong130Yes
31BongelaLong130No
32KakudibijaLong130No
33PuagiLong150No
34AssamchudiLong150Yes
35RatanchudiLong150Yes
36Baidehi HundaroLong150No
37Dumer PhulLong150No
38Tulasi BasLong140Yes
39NodiakoraLong140Yes
40PruthirajLong140No
41KolkotiLong140Yes
42LalkoinLong140Yes
43RaghuseLong140No
44Pipal BasLong140No
45GeleiLong140Yes
46Dhob HundarLong150Yes
47Rani PuagiLong150Yes
48RajsoindiLong150Yes
49JolokeliLong140Yes
50LalgoriLong140No
51SulLong110No
52Thakur BhogLong140Yes
53Nrupati BhogLong140Yes
54GodhanLong150No
55BarenkoLong100No
56DoniloseLong150No
57LodeLong150No
58Kaki GujiLong110No
59MaharajiLong150No
60Dhangodi KhusaLong100Yes
61KanjibelLong100No
62MalpondiLong100No
63AnjanLong120No
64Chahar AnthiLong90No
65Kartik KaliLong120No
66Radha JugolLong120Yes
67MahipalLong140Yes
68Chitoli ChinaLong140Yes
69Ram MukutLong100No
70Sale DhentiShort90Yes
71RajdarbarLong140No
72Samudra Bal Long140No
73SunapaniMedium90No
74MinjhoMedium90No
75JhuturiLong120No
76ButajhilLong140No
77BotarijhilLong140No
78Bogora LucheLong140No
79Jhumoli LucheLong140No
80Saan Chodei GudiLong120No
81Bod Chodei GudiLong120No
82Puroa TundiLong120No
83Buta BoreiShort60-70No
84LuliyaShort60No
85Luliya SekoraShort60No
86Lali GohondiLong140No
87Dhogan MonjiLong140No
88Kola KrushnaLong140Yes
89Lal KrushnaLong140Yes
90Kola KunjoLong140No
91AttoriLong120No
92Kartik NaliLong120No
93Tohonga BoreiLong120No
94Jholoka KeriLong120Yes
95MatiaLong140Yes
96ChinamalLong140Yes
97KulchiShort70No
98Chonor ChiniLong120No
99Sohon GiriLong120No
100ChitkuniLong100No
101GunisaLong130No
102Bhole MuliLong120No
103Budhi BangoLong100No
104Chandra SenaLong100No
105KebaliLong140No
106KaiyenshphuljhuliLong140Yes
107Mugodhi JhuliLong140Yes
108HarishankarLong140Yes
109Laxmi BhogLong140Yes
110Makar KomLong140Yes
111Kali AnjanLong140No
112MaguraLong140Yes
Sl. No. Name of Paddy varietyLand Type DurationDurationYield (in bags / acre)
1SuryajamaBahal90 days9020
2RajogunjiBahal100 days10016
3Gelei Bahal120 days12025
4Mukta JhuliBahal100 days10016
5SorisophuloBahal120 days12020
6SankaribankoBahal150 days15017
7AssamchudiBahal180 days18015
8MahipalBahal120 days12025
9PremajhuliBahal180 days18020
10BodelphuliBahal120 days12015
11Ranisai JhuliBahal150 days15021
12HundaBahal120 days12018
13LahdelBahal/Berna110 days11015

Traditional varieties of Paddy presently available

Sl. No. Name of VarietyTraditionalLand Type (Bahal/Berna/Mal/Antt)Duration (in days)Yield (in bags/acre)
1AmbotupaTraditionalBerna 75-80 12
2AssamchudiTraditionalBahal150-160 15-16
3BadaliphuliTraditionalBerna 80-90 12
4BiromoniTraditionalBerna/Mal80-90 12
5BodelphuliTraditionalBahal12015
6BuluTraditionalBahal13512
7DhankotajhumerTraditionalBahal13512
8Gelei TraditionalBahal12025
9GeleiganthiTraditionalBahal12012
10Hari ShankarTraditionalAntt12012
11HundaTraditionalBahal12018
12HundarTraditionalBahal135-145 12
13JhuliTraditionalBahal13520
14LahdelTraditionalBahal/Berna11015
15MagaraTraditionalBahal18010
16MaguraTraditionalBahal12012
17MahipalTraditionalBahal12025
18Mal JhuliTraditionalMal12018
19MalpatriTraditionalMal12013
20MenekaTraditionalBahal12015-18
21MugudhiTraditionalBahal120-130 15
22Mukta JhuliTraditionalBahal10016
23NenkaTraditionalBerna9012
24PremajhuliTraditionalBahal18020
25RajogunjiTraditionalBahal10016
26RanisahebTraditionalBahal6015
27Ranisai TraditionalBahal12015
28Ranisai JhuliTraditionalBahal15021
29RanisialiTraditionalAntt12012
30Red SariaTraditionalAntt6012
31SariaTraditionalBerna60-7010
32SankarchiniTraditionalBahal/Berna70-8012
33SankariTraditionalBahal13514
34SankaribankoTraditionalBahal15017
35SariaTraditionalAntt6010
36SetkaTraditionalMal12012
37SorisophuloTraditionalBahal12020
38SuryajamaTraditionalBahal9020
39TulasiganthiTraditionalBahal / Mal / Antt60-70 15
40YubrajTraditionalBahal1808

Biral Paddy – on the verge of extinction

Sl. NoLocal name of PaddyVariety (Long /Medium/Short duration)Duration (in Days)Availability (Yes/No)
1SapleheraShort80No
2MeghabahulShort90No
3TumerLong120No
4SetkaShort60No
5SekraShort70No
6BhogiShort70No
7GanjhoShort80No
8NenkaMedium90No
9BoreiMedium90No
10LodeiMedium90No
11ParaShort60No
12MaharajiShort90No
13Ram MukutMedium90No
14DondoShort60No
15NagobelShort60No
16PagoboriMedium90No
17Mohul LuthaMedium90No
18Ambo JhompaMedium90No
19SirchamotiMedium100No
20SurotaMedium100No
21DosokhmatiaMedium100No
22KonjhibakoLong120No
23BankoLong120No
24BiriphuliLong120No
25KotokotoraLong120No
26BongelaLong130No
27KakudibijaLong130No
28PuagiLong150No
29Baidehi HundaroLong150No
30Tumer PhuloLong150No
31PruthirajLong140No
32RaghuseLong140No
33Pipal BasLong140No
34LalgoriLong140No
35SulLong110No
36GodhanLong150No
37BarenkoLong100No
38DoniloseLong150No
39LodeLong150No
40Kaki GujiLong110No
41KanjibelLong100No
42MalpondiLong100No
43AnjanLong120No
44Chahar AnthiLong90No
45Kartik KaliLong120No
46RajdarbarLong140No
47Samudra Bal Long140No
48SunapaniMedium90No
49MinjhoMedium90No
50JhuturiLong120No
51ButajhilLong140No
52BotarijhilLong140No
53Bogora LucheLong140No
54Jhumoli LucheLong140No
55Saan Chodei GudiLong120No
56Bod Chodei GudiLong120No
57Puroa TundiLong120No
58Buta BoreiShort60-70No
59LuliyaShort60No
60Luliya SekoraShort60No
61Lali GohondiLong140No
62Dhogan MonjiLong140No
63Kola KunjoLong140No
64AttoriLong120No
65Kartik NaliLong120No
66Tohonga BoreiLong120No
67KulchiShort70No
68Chonor ChiniLong120No
69Sohon GiriLong120No
70ChitkuniLong100No
71GunisaLong130No
72Bhole MuliLong120No
73Budhi BangoLong100No
74Chandra SenaLong100No
75KebaliLong140No
76Kali AnjanLong140No
77MaharajiLong150No
78Ram MukutLong100No

*Bahal=Low land; Berna=Medium Land; Antt=Upland

There is an urgent need to conserve these traditional varieties of paddy “in situ”. All developmental actors including public, private, civil society organizations and NGOs need to play a key role in it. 

Also read:

Ravi S. Behera
Ravi S. Behera
Mr. Ravi Shankar Behera, PGDAEM, National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE), Hyderabad is an independent freelance Consultant and Author based in Bhubaneswar. He is an Honorary Advisor to grassroots Voluntary Organizations on Food Security, Forest and Environment, Natural Resource Management, Climate Change and Social Development issues. Ravi has lived and worked in various states of India and was associated with international donors and NGOs over the last twenty three years including ActionAid, DanChurchAid, Embassy of Sweden/Sida, Aide et Action, Sightsavers, UNICEF, Agragamee, DAPTA and Practical Action. He has a keen interest in indigenous communities and food policy issues.
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