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The National Biodiversity Act: A Critical Review of Its Impact on Local Indigenous Communities

Twenty-one years after the introduction of the National Biodiversity Act, India has yet to fully harness its potential, despite numerous “development” projects sparking controversy due to their potential impact on biodiversity. The establishment of the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) in 2003 was a step forward, but the government isn’t obligated to follow its recommendations. Although the Act was intended to conserve biological diversity, aligning with the primary objective of the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD), its effectiveness remains in question given the current operational landscape.

The Act mandates the central government to develop national strategies for biodiversity conservation, yet efforts have been hindered by bureaucratic complexities. A civil society group was commissioned to assist in drafting India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan between 2000 and 2003, but the government released its own draft, ignoring the recommendations. Despite the Act’s provisions for consultation with local communities, decision-making power over local resources remains elusive, contradicting both the Act and the CBD’s principles.

Moreover, the Act lacks clarity on Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), and the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) has not actively opposed IPR grants for biological resources or indigenous knowledge from India. While the Act establishes the NBA to oversee sustainable biodiversity use and benefit sharing, it also mandates the creation of state biodiversity boards and municipal biodiversity management committees to facilitate decentralized decision-making.

Despite its significance in preserving India’s biodiversity, concerns persist regarding the Act’s implementation and efficacy. Ambiguities in its requirements lead to confusion, hindering compliance. Furthermore, the NBA’s inability to promote benefit sharing and regulate access to biological resources raises doubts about its effectiveness. Lack of community engagement in biodiversity management committees and benefit-sharing mechanisms exacerbates these concerns.

The Indian Biological Diversity Act of 2002 serves as a legislative framework for biodiversity conservation and sustainable utilization, yet it faces criticism for overlooking traditional knowledge protection and shortcomings in access and benefit-sharing provisions. The government must address these issues to ensure equitable benefit-sharing and effective conservation efforts, thereby safeguarding India’s rich biodiversity for future generations.

Case Examples

Biodiversity, Net, Gain, crossword (National Biodiversity Act)
Biodiversity, Net, Gain, crossword (National Biodiversity Act)

Case Example 1: Novartis vs. India

In a landmark legal battle between Novartis and India, the issue centered around the patenting of a cancer medication derived from an Indian plant. Novartis argued that the substance represented a novel and groundbreaking innovation, deserving patent protection. However, the Indian government countered, asserting that the medication was based on traditional Indian knowledge and therefore ineligible for patent protection under the Biological Diversity Act (BDA).

In 2013, the Indian Supreme Court upheld a lower court’s decision to deny Novartis a patent for the medicine. The court ruled that the medication did not meet the criteria for a legitimate innovation and that Novartis had failed to demonstrate its superiority over alternative therapies. This ruling set a precedent for pharmaceutical companies seeking to patent traditional medicines and was hailed as a victory for India’s efforts to safeguard its traditional knowledge from exploitation by foreign entities.

While celebrated for protecting India’s heritage, critics raised concerns that such verdicts could deter foreign investment in the country’s pharmaceutical sector and potentially stifle innovation.

Case Example 2: Basmati Rice Geographical Indicator (GI) Status

In the case of Basmati Rice Export Development Foundation v. Krishi Utpadan Mandi Samiti (2005), the Delhi High Court granted geographical indicator (GI) status to Basmati rice, a variety native to the Indian subcontinent. This legal decision underscored the importance of acknowledging and protecting traditional knowledge and genetic resources.

By recognizing Basmati rice as a GI, the court highlighted the potential for economic gain through the fair and equitable distribution of benefits arising from its utilization. This case exemplifies how legal interventions can safeguard genetic resources and traditional knowledge while also promoting economic development through their responsible and equitable exploitation.

Moreover, this case demonstrates how environmental regulations, such as GI status designation, can facilitate sustainable development alongside resource conservation efforts.

The National Biological Diversity Act And The Convention On Biological Diversity Overview

A key wildlife and biodiversity zone sign
A key wildlife and biodiversity zone sign

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), established during the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992, aims to promote biodiversity preservation, responsible utilization of its components, and fair distribution of benefits derived from genetic resources. To comply with CBD obligations, member nations develop their own National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs), often supported by national Biological Diversity Acts (BDAs). These acts serve as legal frameworks for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use within respective territories.

For example, India’s Biological Diversity Act (BDA) of 2002 established the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) to oversee benefit-sharing with local communities and regulate access to biological resources and traditional knowledge. Similarly, South Africa’s Biodiversity Act of 2004 led to the creation of the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) to manage and preserve the country’s biodiversity.

Similarly, the Animal Resources Conservation and Protection Act of 2001 in the Philippines aims to conserve and protect animal species and their ecosystems, regulate wildlife trade, and foster global cooperation for conservation efforts. Despite the existence of these legal frameworks, challenges such as limited resources, institutional capacity, and political will hinder their effective implementation.

Efforts to address these challenges involve fostering cooperation among government agencies, civil society groups, and local communities. Innovative strategies like ecosystem service payments and community-based conservation initiatives show promise in promoting biodiversity protection while benefiting local economies.

While the CBD and national BDAs share common elements like NBSAPs and laws governing genetic resource access, differences arise due to varied ecological, social, economic, and political contexts. Identifying gaps and weaknesses in these frameworks can help clarify legal implications and assess clauses related to access and benefit-sharing, particularly concerning intellectual property rights. Continued advocacy and awareness-raising are crucial to ensure effective implementation of these legal mechanisms and prioritize biodiversity conservation.

Assessing the Implementation of National Biodiversity Acts in Achieving CBD Goals

Aerial view mixed forest
Aerial view mixed forest

Examining the effectiveness of National Biodiversity Acts is vital in gauging their alignment with the objectives and principles outlined in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The CBD prioritizes the preservation of biological diversity, necessitating an analysis of clauses related to protected area establishment, wildlife trade regulation, and endangered species preservation within National Biodiversity Acts.

Furthermore, sustainable utilization of biological resources, another CBD goal, warrants scrutiny of clauses governing access to genetic resources, promotion of benefit-sharing mechanisms, and integration of biodiversity concerns into sectoral and cross-sectoral planning. Case studies of countries implementing their national biodiversity acts offer valuable insights into this evaluation process.

For instance, India’s Biological Diversity legislation faces challenges concerning access to genetic resources and traditional knowledge, despite successes in promoting biological resource protection and equitable benefit distribution. Similarly, South Africa’s Biodiversity Act, while effective in establishing a legislative framework for biodiversity protection, encounters difficulties in local implementation and community involvement in decision-making processes.

In 2019, Richards and Satterfield conducted a case study on the effectiveness of Costa Rica’s national biodiversity policy, shedding further light on implementation strategies and outcomes. Strengthening access and benefit-sharing (ABS) procedures emerges as a crucial step in addressing existing gaps and concerns. This may involve establishing clearer rules for benefit-sharing and enhancing monitoring and enforcement mechanisms.

Additionally, promoting the participation of local communities and indigenous peoples in decision-making processes, coupled with increased funding for conservation activities, can enhance the effectiveness of National Biodiversity Acts. Partnerships between the private sector, civil society groups, and financial incentives for biodiversity-friendly practices can further bolster conservation efforts.

Improving the acknowledgment and protection of traditional knowledge and indigenous rights, along with fostering greater community involvement in biodiversity conservation planning, are areas ripe for improvement. Recognizing the interconnectedness of social, economic, and environmental goals underscores the importance of integrated strategies that cater to the diverse needs and aspirations of all stakeholders. Such initiatives not only contribute to biodiversity protection but also drive sustainable livelihoods and social justice, thus ensuring a holistic approach to conservation.


In conclusion, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and national Biodiversity Acts serve as indispensable legal frameworks for advancing biodiversity conservation and the sustainable use of genetic resources. Throughout this dissertation, these documents have been critically examined, focusing on their legal implications, access and benefit-sharing clauses, and challenges in implementation.

Efforts to ensure effective execution of these frameworks necessitate enhanced capacity building and awareness among stakeholders. Incorporating traditional knowledge and practices can further enhance the efficacy of these legal instruments in promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable utilization.

While significant progress has been made in addressing concerns related to access and benefit-sharing, gaps and challenges persist. Notably, issues regarding the intersection of intellectual property rights with benefit-sharing and traditional knowledge protection require ongoing attention from decision-makers and stakeholders. It is imperative to ensure that holders of traditional knowledge are duly acknowledged and compensated for their contributions.

To address these challenges, the dissertation suggests several measures to strengthen the Indian Biological Diversity Act and improve ABS provisions within the CBD and National Biodiversity Acts. This includes bolstering enforcement mechanisms, enhancing legal frameworks for traditional knowledge protection, and fostering greater stakeholder engagement in decision-making processes.

Furthermore, equitable compensation for holders of traditional knowledge is paramount. Establishing fair and just benefit-sharing arrangements that recognize the cultural and economic value of traditional knowledge is essential. Ultimately, these initiatives will not only promote sustainable development but also safeguard the rights of indigenous populations and contribute to the preservation of biodiversity for future generations.

Ravi S. Behera
Ravi S. Behera
Mr. Ravi Shankar Behera, PGDAEM, National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE), Hyderabad is an independent freelance Consultant and Author based in Bhubaneswar. He is an Honorary Advisor to grassroots Voluntary Organizations on Food Security, Forest and Environment, Natural Resource Management, Climate Change and Social Development issues. Ravi has lived and worked in various states of India and was associated with international donors and NGOs over the last twenty three years including ActionAid, DanChurchAid, Embassy of Sweden/Sida, Aide et Action, Sightsavers, UNICEF, Agragamee, DAPTA and Practical Action. He has a keen interest in indigenous communities and food policy issues.

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