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The Potential of Ragi: A Nutritional Powerhouse in Odisha

The Rich Legacy of Ragi in South Odisha

Ragi, scientifically known as Eleusine coracana but often referred to as “Mandia,” has entrenched itself as a dietary cornerstone for numerous indigenous communities residing in the vibrant landscapes of South Odisha, particularly in the Kalahandi-Balangir-Koraput (KBK) region. This versatile cereal, known for its resilience and adaptability, is not just a food source but a cultural emblem and a symbol of social status for these communities. Its presence and significance have endured through generations, cherished by the indigenous populace.

Ragi’s Historical Significance

Ragi’s history is intertwined with the lives of the indigenous people who have cultivated and consumed it for ages. While the decline in millet cultivation can be partly attributed to the advent of the Green Revolution, its waning popularity among non-tribal communities also played a pivotal role. The reluctance of non-tribal groups to embrace millets caused them to lose their once-prominent place in the agricultural landscape.

Guardians of Traditional Farming

Tribal communities have embraced a sustainable farming practice known as shifting cultivation, carried out on medium and upland areas adjacent to the hills. This practice involves the cultivation of millets, particularly during the June to September period, when they become the primary source of sustenance and nourishment. However, the dietary preferences of rural households have witnessed a shift over the past two decades. The rice-centric trend, facilitated by its availability through the Public Distribution System (PDS), has impacted millet consumption.

Nutritional Eminence of Millets

Diving into the nutritional aspect, a study conducted by the National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, underscores the exceptional nutritional value of millets, especially in comparison to rice. Millets boast higher levels of essential nutrients, including minerals, proteins, fats, and iron. Notably, Ragi stands out for its significant calcium content, which is crucial for the healthy growth of infants and children. The untapped potential of Ragi as a nutritional powerhouse cannot be ignored.

Reviving a Cultural Legacy

The State government is taking strides to promote Ragi cultivation, consumption, and marketing within tribal regions. However, there is a delicate balance to strike. Overemphasizing its tribal association might inadvertently deter young tribal individuals from embracing it. Ragi’s historical role as a staple food for indigenous households underscores its significance. Yet, its absence from the farm landscape can be attributed to a frail value chain, inadequate primary processing facilities at the local level, and a lack of sufficient procurement support, leading to inflated costs for processed millet products.

Ragi’s Unique Characteristics

Ragi’s distinction lies in its resilience and adaptability to diverse climates. Thriving in arid regions as rain-fed crops, these small-seeded grasses are considered low-duty crops due to their minimal resource requirements. Cultivated using natural farming techniques in many regions, Ragi significantly reduces input costs. Its water-efficient nature and rapid growth, with a harvest period of 70-100 days, make it an invaluable asset for communities. Ragi’s ability to withstand extreme weather fluctuations further solidifies its status as a climate-resilient crop.

Also read – Food Crops and Commercial Crops: Balancing Necessity and Profit

Diverse Cultivation Practices

In districts such as Koraput, Kalahandi, Balangir, Nayagarh, and Kandhamal, local communities champion a variety of minor millets. These include Ragi – Muskul, Sika, Bodo Mandia, Taya, Sano Mandia, Kontamita, Dussera, Muskul, Sika, Kongora, and KMR 204, among others, cultivated using indigenous seeds. These millets find their niche in poor soils and rainfed conditions. Furthermore, Ragi’s natural resistance to pests and diseases minimizes the need for extensive interventions like weeding and manuring.

Ragi’s Role in Daily Meals

“Mandia Pej,” or Ragi gruel, is a staple in rural households, consumed heartily during all meals – breakfast, lunch, and dinner. This wholesome preparation, mixed with a touch of rice grains, green chili, and salt, epitomizes sustenance. Traditionally cultivated during the Monsoon season on hill slopes using the “Podu Chas” or Slash and Burn method, Ragi’s popularity has faced a recent challenge. The introduction of rice through government schemes for Below Poverty Line (BPL) households has led to a gradual shift in dietary preferences.

An Ongoing Transformation

The two decades have witnessed a systematic reduction in Ragi cultivation across Odisha. This decline is particularly evident in the KBK region, where paddy cultivation has diminished by approximately 25%. Remarkably, women farmers play a pivotal role in every step of the Ragi cultivation process, from planting to processing and post-harvest technologies. Primarily consumed at the household level, Ragi serves as subsistence food.

Odisha Millet Mission’s Impact

In 2017, the Odisha Millet Mission (OMM) was launched with a bold vision to rejuvenate millet cultivation and consumption. Acknowledging millets’ diverse benefits, including reduced water requirements and enhanced climate resilience, the mission aimed to reintegrate these crops into local diets. The government’s commitment to this cause is evidenced by its plan to double Ragi production under OMM. The program’s scale has grown substantially, encompassing more farmers and districts over the years.

Also read – Effective Strategies for Promoting Sustainable Agriculture

Nutritional Security and Economic Growth

The Odisha government’s dedicated efforts are evident in the budgetary allocation of Rs 362 crore for the Odisha Millet Mission. This allocation aims to empower small and marginal farmers by boosting Nutri-cereal production and improving their economic conditions. Furthermore, the inclusion of Ragi in the Public Distribution System and nutritional programs underscores its rising importance in the state’s food security strategy.

Towards a Resilient Future

Ragi, the unassuming cereal, carries within it the potential to nourish communities, empower farmers, and enhance nutritional security. As the Odisha Millet Mission continues to thrive and expand, the trajectory is clear – a future where Ragi reclaims its rightful place in the agricultural landscape, enriching lives and fostering sustainability. This journey towards resilience, nutrition, and progress stands as a testament to the enduring legacy of Ragi in South Odisha.

Challenges in Ragi Production: Overcoming Hurdles for Sustainable Farming

Millet stalks green
Millet stalks green

In the realm of sustainable agriculture, Ragi production presents a host of challenges that require thoughtful solutions. This article delves into the intricate challenges faced by farmers engaged in Ragi cultivation and highlights the pivotal role of sustainable practices in overcoming these hurdles.

Empowering Forest Dwellers

A significant hurdle forest dwellers encounter is the lack of recognition of their rights pertaining to cultivated land and communal resources. This issue, though daunting, has paved the way for transformative changes. Acknowledging the indispensable contribution of women in agriculture, endeavors have been made to legally establish the rights of local communities over their traditionally utilized individual lands. These very lands, aptly suited for Ragi-based farming systems, hold immense potential for sustainable farming practices.

Empowering Through Education

An essential aspect of addressing these challenges is the training of community volunteers. Equipping them with the necessary knowledge and skills enables them to effectively serve local indigenous communities. By imparting education and guidance, these volunteers play a pivotal role in disseminating sustainable agricultural practices among communities striving for self-sufficiency.

Fostering Indigenous Ownership

The acknowledgment of individual and communal land rights has played a crucial role in reinforcing the stake of indigenous communities, such as the Kutia Kondh communities, in their forest resources. These resources stand as vital pillars for ensuring food production and asserting food sovereignty. Through legal recognition and protection, these communities are empowered to safeguard their heritage while engaging in sustainable agricultural endeavors.

Preserving Traditional Wisdom

Traditionally, women in remote villages held profound expertise in seed conservation and storage, positioning them as key players both within their households and the larger community. However, the widespread adoption of hybrid seeds by men has resulted in the erosion of this invaluable knowledge. Addressing this challenge requires a concerted effort to preserve and pass down traditional wisdom, thus nurturing a harmonious coexistence between modern practices and ancestral wisdom.

A Shift from Ragi to Rice

In recent times, an observable shift has taken place in dietary preferences, with rice gaining prominence over Ragi. This shift, often mirroring trends in the middle class, poses a challenge to Ragi production. Addressing this challenge entails raising awareness about the nutritional benefits of Ragi and promoting its incorporation into modern diets.

Encouraging Participation in Farming

An emerging concern is the waning interest of young individuals in agricultural pursuits. Instead, they are increasingly drawn to alternative sectors offering wage employment. Addressing this challenge requires innovative strategies to spark youth interest in farming. Highlighting the potential for sustainable practices, coupled with technological integration, can rekindle their enthusiasm for agricultural endeavors.

Optimizing Harvesting and Yield

The process of harvesting and optimizing yield in Ragi cultivation demands precision and knowledge. With a maturity period ranging from 120 to 135 days, factors such as the geographical tract and the chosen variety significantly influence the timing of harvest. Employing traditional tools like ordinary sickles, farmers meticulously harvest the ear heads, ensuring a productive yield.

Nurturing the Land’s Potential

A successful Ragi harvest yields approximately 20 to 25 quintals per hectare of grain, alongside 60 to 80 quintals per hectare of fodder. The straw derived from finger millet proves to be a valuable source of nutritious fodder. This dual benefit of grain and fodder contributes to the overall sustenance of both livestock and human populations, reinforcing the significance of Ragi in the agricultural landscape.

In conclusion, the challenges posed by Ragi production are not insurmountable barriers, but rather opportunities for innovation and growth. By addressing issues related to land rights, indigenous knowledge preservation, shifting dietary trends, and youth engagement, sustainable Ragi farming can thrive. Through strategic approaches and collaborative efforts, we can ensure that Ragi retains its rightful place in both traditional practices and modern agricultural landscapes.

The Nutritional Wonders of Ragi

Ragi Ladoo
Ragi Ladoo

Ragi, also known as finger millet, emerges as a nutritional powerhouse, boasting an array of essential elements that can significantly impact your health and wellbeing. Packed with a rich blend of calcium, iron, protein, fiber, and various minerals, ragi stands as a stellar example of nature’s bounty, ready to enrich your diet and elevate your vitality. Let’s delve into the remarkable nutritional benefits this cereal brings to the table.

1. Ragi: A Treasure Trove of Nutrients

At the core of ragi’s allure lies its impressive nutrient profile. Bursting with calcium, iron, and protein, this cereal takes the spotlight as an ideal dietary inclusion for those seeking optimal health. Moreover, ragi’s fiber content contributes to digestive wellness, making it a wholesome addition to your daily intake.

2. Embracing a Low-Fat Lifestyle

Ragi stands out for its low fat content, primarily comprising unsaturated fats that align with heart-healthy choices. This makes it an excellent option for those aiming to manage their fat intake while enjoying a nutrient-rich diet.

3. Gluten-Free Goodness

For individuals with gluten sensitivities or celiac disease, ragi emerges as a beacon of hope. This cereal is naturally devoid of gluten, making it a safe and nourishing alternative for those seeking gluten-free options without compromising on nutritional value.

4. Weight Management and Bone Health

Finger millet assumes the role of a trustworthy companion in your weight management journey. By incorporating ragi into your diet, you can harness its ability to aid weight control while fortifying your bone health. The essential nutrients within ragi contribute to bone strength and resilience, ensuring you maintain a solid foundation for overall health.

5. Taming Cholesterol and Blood Sugar

Elevated blood cholesterol levels pose a concern for many individuals. Ragi offers a solution through its potential to help lower blood cholesterol levels, contributing to cardiovascular wellbeing. Additionally, its lower glycemic response makes it a favorable choice for diabetics, as it helps regulate blood sugar levels effectively.

6. Amino Acids: Guardians of Wellbeing

The abundance of amino acids in ragi underscores its significance in sustaining optimal bodily functions and promoting tissue repair. Consistent consumption of ragi can play a pivotal role in combatting malnutrition, deterring degenerative diseases, and slowing down the aging process.

7. Tailoring Benefits with Varieties

Different variations of ragi offer targeted benefits for specific health concerns. Green ragi comes to the forefront for individuals dealing with blood pressure, liver disorders, asthma, lactation, and heart weakness. Embracing the right variation of ragi can be a strategic step towards tailored health enhancement.

8. A Note of Caution

While ragi boasts numerous health advantages, excessive intake could lead to an increased level of oxalic acid in the body. Consequently, it is prudent to exercise moderation, particularly for individuals with kidney stone concerns.

9. From Farm to Table: A Wholesome Culinary Journey

Ragi’s versatility shines as it transitions from the field to your plate. This cereal can be skillfully incorporated into an array of dishes, such as cakes, roti, dosa, porridge, upma, pitha, halwa, and biscuits. Its transformative journey from raw material to delectable dish is a testament to its culinary potential.

10. Unveiling Ragi’s Nutritional Value

Diving into the specifics, let’s explore the nutritional value of ragi per 100 grams:

  • Energy: 320kcal
  • Dietary fiber: 11.18g
  • Total carbohydrate: 66.82g
  • Total fat: 1.92g
  • Protein: 7.16g
  • Total folates: 34.66mcg
  • Vitamin B1 (thiamin): 0.37mg
  • Vitamin B2 (riboflavin): 0.17mg
  • Vitamin B3 (niacin): 1.34mg
  • Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine): 0.05mg
  • Vitamin K: 0.9mcg
  • Calcium: 364mg
  • Iron: 4.62mg
  • Magnesium: 146mg
  • Phosphorus: 210mg
  • Potassium: 443mg
  • Manganese: 3.19mg
  • Zinc: 2.53mg

11. A Holistic Approach: Odisha’s Millet Revolution

The state of Odisha, driven by its commitment to sustainable agriculture, has embarked on a millet cultivation mission. Through its Odisha Millets Mission (OMM), the state provides farmers with incentives to transition to millet cultivation, offering free seeds, organic fertilizers, and valuable training programs. This initiative has not only boosted productivity but also elevated the livelihoods of farmers.

12. Nurturing Millet Growth: A Success Story

With the steadfast support of Watershed Support Services and Activities Network (WASSAN) and the Nabakrushna Choudhury Centre for Development Studies (NCDS), the Odisha government fosters a thriving millet ecosystem. The concerted efforts of these organizations, coupled with regular training sessions for farmers, have yielded remarkable results in terms of enhanced productivity and reduced input costs.

13. A Flourishing Market and Beyond

Odisha’s dedication to the millet cause extends to establishing a secure market for millet produce. By offering a minimum support price for ragi that surpasses that of paddy, the government ensures the prosperity of millet farmers. Additionally, an automated procurement portal streamlines the process, further contributing to a flourishing millet industry.

14. Harvesting Success: Impressive Growth Figures

The impact of Odisha’s millet revolution is evident in the remarkable growth figures. Over the past five years, millet production in the state has experienced a staggering 14-fold increase, expanding from 3,333 hectares in 2017-18 to an impressive 53,230 hectares in 2022. This exponential growth is attributed to sustainable agricultural practices and the utilization of high-quality seeds.

15. Empowering Farmers: Catalyzing Economic Growth

A survey conducted by the Nabakrushna Choudhury Centre for Development Studies (NCDS) revealed the substantial impact of the millet mission on farmers’ lives. The value of produce per hectare doubled, and income per hectare witnessed a notable rise. This economic empowerment underscores the transformative potential of millet cultivation.

16. A Wholesome Journey to Food Plates

The Odisha government leaves no stone unturned in ensuring that the benefits of millets reach every household. Through campaigns and rallies, they dispel misconceptions and showcase the merits of millet consumption. Furthermore, millets have become an integral part of the public distribution system (PDS), providing a ration card holder with the nourishment of ragi. In specific regions, such as Keonjhar and Sundargarh districts, anganwadi centers distribute ragi laddu mix for the consumption of young children.

17. A Global Stamp of Approval

Odisha’s agro-ecological endeavors have garnered acclaim from both national and international entities, including the United Nations. Since 2021, NITI Aayog has facilitated the dissemination of Odisha Millets Mission’s insights to other states, fostering a culture of sustainable agriculture and holistic wellbeing.

In conclusion, ragi stands as a beacon of nutritional richness, offering a plethora of health benefits that encompass weight management, bone health, cholesterol regulation, and more. With Odisha’s pioneering efforts in millet cultivation, a transformative journey unfolds, empowering farmers and enriching the lives of individuals across the nation. As we embrace the remarkable potential of ragi, we embark on a journey towards a healthier, more sustainable future.

Effective Measures to Enhance Production and Consumption of Millets


In the realm of agricultural development, the spotlight has shifted towards millets as a vital source of sustenance and economic growth. This article delves into the strategic approaches that can be undertaken to bolster millet production and consumption, outlining both incentives and challenges associated with this endeavor.

Boosting Production for a Flourishing Millet Industry

To foster a thriving millet industry, a multifaceted approach is essential. The following strategies are proposed to invigorate millet production:

1. Empowering Farmers with Incentives

Offering incentives can significantly stimulate millet cultivation. An enticing proposition is the provision of Rs 9,500 per hectare over a span of three years. This financial support not only encourages farmers to delve into millet cultivation but also aids in their sustenance during the initial phases.

2. Knowledge Enhancement and Promotion Campaigns

Creating awareness and imparting knowledge about millet cultivation plays a pivotal role in its adoption. Launching educational campaigns, training sessions, and engaging food festivals can effectively promote millets. These initiatives serve to highlight the nutritional benefits and versatile culinary applications of millet-based products.

3. Capacity-building for Optimal Yield

To maximize millet production, empowering farmers with advanced techniques is crucial. Rigorous training encompassing millet cultivation practices, application of biological inputs, and proficient sowing techniques can enhance yield and quality.

4. Diversified Marketing Outlets

Expanding the avenues for millet-based products can escalate consumption. The establishment of mobile vans, cafés, kiosks, and outlets dedicated to millet foods widens consumer accessibility. This diversification ensures that the reach of millet products extends to various demographics.

Promoting Consumption through Innovation and Accessibility

Fostering a culture of millet consumption demands concerted efforts in both innovation and accessibility. The following strategies pave the way for increased consumption:

1. Pioneering the “Millet Shakti” Brand

Creating a distinctive brand identity, such as “Millet Shakti,” can revolutionize millet consumption. This brand can encompass a range of millet-based products, including cookies, savory snacks, vermicelli, and processed millets. Such branding not only adds value but also reinforces the appeal of these products in the market.

2. Market Linkages through Collaboration

Collaboration with farmer-producer organizations can facilitate robust market linkages. By establishing strong connections between producers and consumers, the availability of millet products can be enhanced, driving greater consumption.

3. Integration with Public Distribution System

Integrating millet products into the public distribution system can foster wider adoption. Distributing millets through ration cards, where each card holder is entitled to 1-2 kg of ragi, further bolsters consumption. Additionally, anganwadi centers providing ragi laddu mix in select districts enhance accessibility.

Navigating Impacts and Overcoming Challenges

While strides have been made in millet production and consumption, certain challenges and impacts warrant attention:

1. Impressive Impact on Farmer Communities

The introduction of millet-centric initiatives has significantly impacted farmer communities. With 19 districts, encompassing 142 blocks, 1,722 gram panchayats, 16,989 villages, and 129,222 farmers, engaged in millet cultivation, the value of produce per hectare has witnessed a noteworthy rise. Household income has surged from Rs 9,477 to R20,701, transforming the economic landscape for many.

2. Lingering Challenges

Notwithstanding the progress, challenges persist. A skewed focus on ragi production and procurement, rather than embracing a diverse range of millets, hampers the holistic potential of millet cultivation.

3. Women Empowerment and Limited Outreach

Women’s self-help groups actively participating in millet product processing and sales have experienced a positive economic shift. However, the outreach of sales outlets remains limited. Expanding the scale of initiatives like Millet Shakti and public distribution is essential to realize the full potential.

4. Consumption Trends

Consumption trends exhibit promising patterns. With 98.5% of farmer households consuming millets in the winter, 72.6% in the rainy season, and 89.9% in summer, there is a substantial seasonal consumption rate. However, challenges lie in the open market, where only 500 kg of millets are procured at assured prices, leading to farmers selling surplus produce at lower rates.

In conclusion, millet production and consumption can be galvanized through a combination of incentives, education, marketing innovations, and strategic collaborations. Despite challenges, the journey towards a flourishing millet industry is marked by transformative impacts on farmers, economic growth, and nutritional practices. The commitment to diversification and accessibility remains integral in harnessing the full potential of millets in India’s agricultural landscape.

Promoting Millet Production and Consumption: A Path to Sustainability


In the realm of agriculture, the Odisha Millet Mission (OMM) has been striving to foster the production and consumption of seven varieties of millets. Although the initiative has a broad scope, the spotlight has primarily shone on ragi, which has encompassed a staggering 86 percent of the total millet cultivation area, according to data furnished by the OMM website. In stark contrast, lesser-known millets such as little millet, foxtail millet, sorghum, pearl millet, kodo millet, and barnyard millet account for a meager 13 percent of the cultivation area.

The Current Landscape and Challenges

Within the scope of the 2020-21 timeline, the state government procured a little over 20 million kg of ragi. However, this quantity only represents 27 percent of the total ragi yield, since OMM’s procurement protocol amounts to a mere 500 kg of ragi per hectare, leaving the remainder for farmers’ personal consumption.

This approach has inadvertently encouraged farmers to integrate more millets into their diets throughout the seasons, as evidenced by a mid-term evaluation conducted by the National Council of Development Studies (NCDS) in 2019-20. Despite this, the prevailing average yield of 1,500 kg per hectare often results in surplus produce that remains unpurchased, pressuring farmers to offload it at distressingly low rates, ranging from Rs 10-12 per kg, in the open market.

While ragi has been distributed through the Public Distribution System (PDS) and as a mixture via anganwadi centers in select districts, its consumption has not experienced significant uptake. OMM has also ventured into marketing millet-derived products, such as cookies, savory snacks, vermicelli, and processed millets, under the brand “Millet Shakti,” accessible through food trucks, cafes, kiosks, and other retail avenues.

Empowering Women and Leveraging Farmer Producer Organizations

Central to the OMM’s agenda are Women Self-Help Groups (SHGs), positioned as pivotal players in the program. These groups are involved not only in producing biological inputs to enhance millet yields and processing the produce, but they also operate millet-based cafes and retail outlets. Yet, the full extent of SHGs’ potential remains untapped, with only three women’s SHGs currently engaged in the manufacture and processing of Millet Shakti products. This limitation constrains product availability, generated income, and overall consumption.

OMM also leverages the potential of Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) to bolster marketing connections. Hitherto, OMM has utilized existing FPOs to vend processed millets in the open market or to pool produce for the Tribal Development Co-operative Corporation of Odisha Limited. In cases where a particular area lacks an FPO, a SHG or community group assumes that role. At present, the OMM operates through 76 FPOs. However, some of these FPOs engage primarily in minor processing and aggregation, lacking plans for expansive market expansion.

Forging Ahead: Strategies and Recommendations

To realize sustainable progress, it is imperative to support and amplify the traditional farming practices of tribal communities. For instance, tribal farmers traditionally practice mixed farming and crop rotation, where Ragi emerges as the central crop, best suited to the local agroecology. Promoting these traditional cropping systems becomes essential to address local climate change challenges.

In the contemporary landscape, Ragi is gaining traction as a health-promoting foodstuff, particularly in urban areas. However, there is a looming risk of transforming millet cultivation into a monoculture limited to a few select varieties, driven by commercial interests. This shift could lead to a loss of crop diversity and hinder the adaptation of millets to changing climates, rendering them susceptible to natural disasters, diseases, or pest outbreaks. Thus, it is critical to develop strategies that safeguard land races alongside the pursuit of commercial cultivation.

Nurturing Local Varieties and Empowering Women

To stimulate the cultivation and propagation of indigenous millet varieties, effective marketing strategies must prioritize their value over cash crops. While tree crops have assisted in alleviating poverty, educating farmers about the significance of cultivating minor millets amid climate change is equally vital. Tribal farmers’ history of mixed farming and crop rotation aligns harmoniously with local agroecology and has showcased resilience in the face of climate fluctuations. Supporting and promoting these traditional cropping practices is essential to combat climate change locally.

In the intricate relationship between millets and women within tribal regions, lies a pivotal connection that cannot be severed. Distinguishing between wealth and health is paramount to prevent health-related issues in areas plagued by endemic malnutrition. For the promotion of millet farming, providing incentives and financial aid for processing, storage, and marketing becomes crucial.

Key Policy Interventions for a Resilient Future

Enhancing the Minimum Support Price (MSP) in Odisha could indirectly impact millet production, potentially leading to unintended nutritional imbalances. Implementing policies that encourage mixed cultivation and sustainable land management, while incorporating private sector participation without compromising biodiversity, is paramount. Moreover, integrating millets into welfare programs and scaling up initiatives at the state level can foster local production, provide enhanced nutrition to children, and perpetuate the habit of millet consumption.

In the trajectory of development, community-level monitoring of food and nutrition initiatives, as well as fostering partnerships with local organizations, will be pivotal for sustainability. Recognizing that addressing malnutrition and eradicating hunger go hand in hand, the state government and other stakeholders must prioritize both aspects equally.

The Odisha Millet Mission holds the potential to revolutionize agricultural landscapes while nurturing local communities and safeguarding diverse crop varieties. By adopting a holistic approach that prioritizes sustainability, nutrition, and community engagement, the journey towards a resilient future can be embarked upon.

Ravi S. Behera
Ravi S. Behera
Mr. Ravi Shankar Behera, PGDAEM, National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE), Hyderabad is an independent freelance Consultant and Author based in Bhubaneswar. He is an Honorary Advisor to grassroots Voluntary Organizations on Food Security, Forest and Environment, Natural Resource Management, Climate Change and Social Development issues. Ravi has lived and worked in various states of India and was associated with international donors and NGOs over the last twenty three years including ActionAid, DanChurchAid, Embassy of Sweden/Sida, Aide et Action, Sightsavers, UNICEF, Agragamee, DAPTA and Practical Action. He has a keen interest in indigenous communities and food policy issues.

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